Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
Genetically modified organism (GMO) means an organism, with the exception of human beings, in which the genetic material has been altered by genetic modification through the use of some of the techniques that are defined by a legal regulation and capable of reproducing or transferring hereditary material.
Act No. 78/2004 Coll. (PDF, 288 kB), on the Use of Genetically Modified Organisms and Genetic Products, as amended, is a key legal instrument on GMOs in the Czech Republic from the environmental point of view. The Act implements Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on the deliberate release into the environment of genetically modified organisms and repealing Council Directive 90/220/EEC.
Decree of the Ministry of the Environment No. 209/2004 (PDF, 518 kB), on Detailed Conditions for the Use of Genetically Modified Organisms and Genetic Products, as amended.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity covers the treatment of genetically modified organisms at the international level. This multilateral environmental agreement aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health. The Czech Republic is a Party to the Cartagena Protocol since its entry into force in 2013.